Cassini mission to Saturn
THE WOODLANDS, Texas It’s been six months since NASA’s Cassini spacecraft plunged to its doom in the atmosphere of Saturn, but scientists didn’t spend much high end replica bags time mourning. They got busy, analyzing the spacecraft’s final data.
replica handbags china The, after more than 13 years orbiting Saturn (SN Online: 9/15/17). The spacecraft’s final 22 orbits, dubbed the Grand Finale, sent Cassini into the potentially best replica designer bags dangerous region between the gas giant and its rings, and its final orbit sent it directly into Saturn’s atmosphere. replica handbags china
Replica Bags Wholesale That perspective helped solve mysteries about the planet and its moons that could not be tackled any other way, scientists said March This Site 19 at the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in The Woodlands, Texas. Replica Bags Wholesale
“In so many ways, the Grand Finale orbits provided information that was totally unexpected,” said Cassini buy replica bags project scientist Linda Spilker of NASA’s replica bags buy online Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. 7a replica bags wholesale “So many of our models were not correct.”
replica handbags online Here are five things we now know and a few outstanding mysteries. replica handbags online
1. Saturn’s clouds go deepThose final daredevil orbits allowed Cassini to measure the gravity of Saturn and its rings independent of one another. Looking at the planet’s gravity field alone revealed that the swirling bands of clouds penetrate much deeper into the planet than expected.
Astronomers this month announced a similar discovery for an even larger gas giant, reporting that the Juno spacecraft, which is orbiting Jupiter, had good quality replica bags found that below the top of the atmosphere.
Replica Handbags Saturn’s clouds reach a few times deeper than that. “This was an astonishing result,” replica wallets Spilker said. Replica Handbags
“People used to think that maybe Saturn was just a slightly smaller version of Jupiter, but high quality designer replica it’s evident that that’s not the case,” says planetary scientist replica bags online Paul Schenk of the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, who was not involved in the gravity measurements. The difference speaks to how diverse planets are, replica bags from china he says. “Every place you look, everywhere we’ve been to, it’s just been so dramatically different and unique.”
2. Ring rain is eroding the innermost ringGrains of ice from the rings are raining down into Saturn’s atmosphere, Cassini’s final orbits confirmed. This “ring rain” idea has been suggested since the 1980s, but only by tasting the atmosphere and directly sampling the space between Saturn and the rings could Cassini buy replica bags online confirm the rains are real.
In its last five full orbits, Cassini found best replica designer a zoo of organic molecules in and just above Saturn’s atmosphere, said planetary scientist Kelly Miller of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio. The spacecraft found a lot of water, which wasn’t surprising bag replica high quality water makes up about 90 designer replica luggage percent of the rings. But there were also a lot of hydrocarbons similar to propane, plus some methane and sulfur bearing molecules.
wholesale replica designer handbags The types of replica designer bags wholesale molecules became less well mixed as the spacecraft looked deeper into Saturn’s atmosphere, which is what would happen if the particles came from the rings and sank at different speeds. The researchers think this material is especially raining from Saturn’s D ring, the thin innermost ring. Other Cassini luxury replica bags data suggest this ring is losing mass. wholesale replica designer handbags
Fake Designer Bags “The D ring is slowly being eroded away and going into the planet,” Spilker said. Fake Designer Bags
3. Organics could explain mysterious ring huesThe organics in the ring rain could solve a debate about why Saturn’s rings appear reddish in some high replica bags spots.
aaa replica designer handbags “We’ve had this debate going on for a couple of years now are they red because of good old fashioned rust like Mars, or because of high quality replica bags the same kinds of organic materials that make carrots and tomatoes and watermelon red?” said aaa replica bags planetary scientist Jeff Cuzzi of NASA’s Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif. “To me, this answers the question of what makes the rings red: It’s organics.” aaa replica designer handbags
Designer Fake Bags It’s still not clear where the organics come from, though. They could be created within the rings, or they could come from cosmic dust from the tails of comets. Miller and her colleagues are comparing the best replica bags online ring rain molecules with data on comet 67P,, to see how well they match up (SN: 11/11/17, p. 32). Designer Fake Bags
Replica Bags 4. Titan’s “magic islands” aren’t islands, or bubblesMysterious disappearing features in the lakes of Saturn’s moon Titan are caused by sunlight reflecting off giant waves, said planetary scientist Alexander Hayes of Cornell University. Replica Bags
Designer Replica Bags SUN GLINT This infrared image taken by Cassini in 2014 shows a bright, mirrorlike reflection (yellow spot at upper left) in Kraken Mare, a northern sea on Saturn’s moon Titan. That reflection combined with radar data best replica bags suggests that what were thought to be mysterious disappearing islands in the sea are actually tall waves. JPL Caltech/NASA, Univ. of Arizona, Univ. of Idaho” SUN GLINT This infrared image taken by Cassini in 2014 shows a bright, mirrorlike reflection (yellow spot at upper left) in Kraken Mare, a northern sea on https://www.fakehandbagshome.com Saturn’s moon Titan. That reflection combined with radar data suggests that what were thought to be mysterious disappearing islands in the sea are actually tall waves. JPL Caltech/NASA, Univ. of Arizona, Univ. of Idaho” Designer Replica Bags
These features were named “magic islands” when they were first spotted in 2014. As recently as April 2017, planetary scientists thought they had the islands solved: They seemed to be the result of burbling through the moon’s methane and ethane seas (SN Online: 4/18/17).
purse replica handbags But Hayes presented newly analyzed data from August 2014, when Cassini looked at Kraken Mare, the moon’s largest northern sea, in radar and infrared replica bags china wavelengths within two hours of each other. The radar images showed a magic island, and the infrared ones showed a peak in brightness at the same spot. purse replica handbags
Because the observations were taken two hours apart, the island probably couldn’t have been due to bubbles, Hayes said bubbles would pop or disperse too quickly. Instead, he thinks the brightening could be the glint of sunlight reflecting directly off of giant waves on the lake, like how the ocean ripples with gold replica designer bags at sunset. Simulations of Titan’s atmosphere suggest these waves could be raised by winds as slow as 0.5 meters per second, which would barely move a wind vane on Earth.
Handbags Replica 5. Enceladus’ plumes may brighten by the pull of another moonSaturn’s tiny moon Enceladus has plumes that may be driven by nudges from another moon. Handbags Replica
The spurts of liquid water were discovered in 2006. Over the next six years, scientists noticed that the plumes varied in brightness (a proxy for how much material is gushing from the moon) on a daily cycle, probably driven by Saturn’s different positions in Enceladus’ sky.
high quality replica handbags Then, in 2015 some researchers noted that the plumes’ overall brightness had been decreasing since the beginning of the Cassini mission. high quality replica handbags
Fake Handbags One possible explanation was that the plumes changed with Saturn’s seasons. Another was that replica designer backpacks ice built up in the vents, clogging them and decreasing the flow. But looking at the full 13 year dataset, planetary scientist Francis Nimmo found that the plumes grow brighter in a regular cycle every four and 11 years. The pattern is too coherent to be explained by clogged vents, said Nimmo, of the University of California, Santa Cruz. Oddly, the plume grew brighter in 2017, so the seasonal explanation doesn’t fit either. Fake Handbags
KnockOff Handbags The variations could be explained by a neighboring moon, Dione. Every time Dione and Enceladus line up, their gravitational stress on each other could force Enceladus’ vents open a bit more, causing the plumes to grow brighter. KnockOff Handbags
Wholesale Replica Bags Unsolved enigmasSo far, analyzing data from Cassini hasn’t answered all of scientists’ questions. Is Enceladus the only moon withplumes? Dione showed signs of activity, too, but Cassini wasn’t able to confirm it. How thick is Enceladus’ ice sheet? Why are Titan’s smaller lakes full of clear, pure methane, when scientists expected the lakes to be replica bags clogged with hydrocarbon silt? Wholesale Replica Bags
replica Purse Even though the spacecraft is gone, it left decades’ worth of data to sift through in search of answers. “Cassini is going to keep on giving as long as we keep looking,” Hayes said. replica Purse
cheap replica handbags Editors’ note: This story was updated on March 21, 2018, to include the affiliations of Jeff Cuzzi and Francis Nimmo cheap replica handbags.